Perbandingan Fiqh Tentang Akad Tidak Bernama

  • M. Auritsniyal Firdaus Mahkamah Agung Republik Indonesia
  • Rifqy Tazkiyyaturrohmah
Keywords: fiqh, perbandingan fiqh, akad, akad tak bernama

Abstract

Abstract

This paper uses a type of qualitative research with a library research focus. The discussion of this paper, first discusses the meaning of contract in a comparative study of fiqh, then discusses the pillars and conditions of a contract in a comparative study of fiqh, and finally discusses the validity, legal consequences and termination of the contract as well as a comparison of fiqh regarding anonymous contracts. According to Syāfi'iyah, Mālikiyah, and Hānabilah, a contract is anything that someone intends to do, whether it arises from one will, then according to Wahbah az-Zuhailī, a contract is an agreement between two wills to give rise to legal consequences, either in the form of giving rise to obligation, transfer it, transfer it, or stop it, whereas according to Hanafiyah and Musṭahfā Ahmad az-Zarqā, in terms of terms, a contract is a relationship between consent and qabul according to the provisions of the sharia.' The pillars of a contract according to Hanafiyah are only consent and acceptance, whereas according to non-Hanafiyah a contract has three pillars, namely 'aqid, ma'qud 'alaih and shighat. Meanwhile, according to contemporary Islamic legal experts, there are four pillars of a contract, namely al-'āqida'in, ṣigatul-'aqd, maḥalul-'aqd, and mauḍū' al-'aqd. According to Hanafiyah, the levels of invalidity and validity of a contract are five levels, namely: baṭil contract, fāsid contract, mauqūf contract, nafiz gair lāzim contract, and nafiz lāzim contract, whereas according to others there is no distinction between a void contract and a fāsid contract, for them both are contracts that cancelled. Then the legal consequences of a contract can have an impact on the parties and on the contents of the contract. And finally, contract termination covers four things, namely termination based on agreement (al-iqālah), termination related to advance payment, contract termination because it is not implemented, and contract termination because it is impossible to implement.

 

Keynote: contracts, fiqh, comparisons, anonymous contracts.

 

 

 

Abstrak

Pada tulisan ini menggunakan jenis penelitian kualitatif dengan fokus kepustakaan (library research). Pembahasan paper ini, pertama dibahas tentang pengertian akad dalam kajian perbandingan fiqh, kemudian dibahas rukun dan syarat akad dalam kajian perbandingan fiqh, dan terakhir dibahas keabsahan, akibat hukum, dan terminasi akad serta perbandingan fiqh tentang akad tak bernama. Akad menurut Syāfi’iyah, Mālikiyah, dan Hānabilah, akad adalah segala sesuatu yang diniatkan oleh seseorang untuk dikerjakan, baik timbul karena satu kehendak, kemudian menurut Wahbah az-Zuhailī, akad adalah kesepakatan dua kehendak untuk menimbulkan akibat-akibat hukum, baik berupa menimbulkan kewajiban, memindahkannya, mengalihkan, maupun menghentikannya, sedangkan menurut Hanafiyah dan Musṭahfā Ahmad az-Zarqā secara istilah akad adalah pertalian antara ijab dan qabul menurut ketentuan syara.’ Rukun akad menurut Hanafiyah hanya ijab dan kabul, sedangkan menurut selain Hanafiyah akad memiliki tiga rukun yaitu 'aqid, ma'qud 'alaih dan shighat. Sedangkan Rukun akad menurut ahli-ahli hukum Islam kontemporer, rukun akad ada empat, yaitu al-‘āqida’in, ṣigatul-‘aqd, maḥalul-‘aqd, dan mauḍū’ al-‘aqd. Menurut Hanafiyah tingkatan kebatalan dan keabsahan akad menjadi lima peringkat, yaitu: akad baṭil, akad fāsid, akad mauqūf, akad nafiz gair lāzim, dan akad nafiz lāzim, sedangkan menurut yang lain tidak membedakan akad batal dan akad fāsid, bagi mereka keduanya adalah akad yang batal. Kemudian akibat hukum suatu akad dapat berakibat terhadap para pihak dan terhadap isi pada akad. Dan terakhir dibahas terminasi akad meliputi empat hal, yaitu terminasi berdasarkan kesepakatan (al-iqālah), terminasi terkait pembayaran urbun di muka, terminasi akad karena tidak dilaksanakan, dan terminasi akad karena mustahil dilaksanakan.

 

Kata kunci: akad, fiqh, perbandingan, akad tak Bernama.

Published
2023-12-16
How to Cite
M. Auritsniyal Firdaus, & Rifqy Tazkiyyaturrohmah. (2023). Perbandingan Fiqh Tentang Akad Tidak Bernama. At-Tasyri’: Jurnal Hukum Dan Ekonomi Syariah, 5(01), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.55380/tasyri.v5i01.560
Section
Articles